Social Psychology Network

Maintained by Scott Plous, Wesleyan University

Wesley Schultz

Wesley Schultz

At a general level, my research interests are in applied social psychology, social influence, and quantitative methods. Recent projects have included studies of normative social influence, applications of social psychology to promote energy and water conservation, and studies of science training programs. I have a particular interest in quantitative methods, including longitudinal designs, tests of mediated processes, and meta-analysis. My research blends basic psychological science with applications to real-world issues. As an applied researcher, I have worked with a range of organizations, including the National Institutes of Health, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Institute of Justice, World Wildlife Fund, and Keep America Beautiful.

Primary Interests:

  • Applied Social Psychology
  • Attitudes and Beliefs
  • Helping, Prosocial Behavior
  • Persuasion, Social Influence

Online Studies:

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Journal Articles:

  • Schultz, P. W., & Tabanico, J. T. (2009). Criminal beware: A social norms perspective on posting public warning signs. Criminology.
  • Schultz, P. W., Shriver, C., Tabanico, J., & Khazian, A. (2004). Implicit connections with nature. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 24, 31-42.
  • Schultz, P. W., Nolan, J., Cialdini, R., Goldstein, N., & Griskevicius, V. (2007). The constructive, destructive, and reconstructive power of social norms. Psychological Science, 18, 429-434.
  • Schultz, P. W., Nolan, J., Cialdini, R., Goldstein, N., & Griskevicius, V. (2018). The constructive, destructive, and reconstructive power of social norms—Reprise. Perspectives on Psychological Science.
  • Schultz, P. W., Khazian, A., & Zaleski, A. (2008). Using normative social influence to promote conservation among hotel guests. Social Influence, 3, 4-23.
  • Schultz, P. W., Bator, R., Tabanico, J., *Bruni, C., Large, L. B. (2013). Littering in context: Personal and environmental predictors of littering behavior. Environment and Behavior, 45, 35 - 59. doi: 10.1177/0013916511412179.
  • Schultz, P. W. (1999). Changing behavior with normative feedback interventions: A field experiment of curbside recycling. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 21, 25-36.
  • Schultz, P. W. (2011). Conservation means behavior. Conservation Biology, 25, 1080-1083
  • Schultz, P. W. (2014). Strategies for promoting proenvironmental behavior: Lots of tools but few instructions. European Psychologist, 19, 107-117. [Special Issue on Sustainability]. doi: 10.1027/1016-9040/a000163.
  • Nolan, J., Schultz, P. W., Cialdini, R. B., Griskevicius, V., & Goldstein, N. (2008). Normative social influence is underdetected. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 34, 913-923.
  • Schultz, P. W., Estrada, M., *Schmitt, J., *Sokoloski, R., & Silva-Send, N. (2015). Using in-home displays to provide smart meter feedback about household electricity consumption: A randomized control trial comparing kilowatts, cost, and social norms. Energy, 90, 351-358.

Other Publications:

  • Schultz, P. W., Tabanico, J., & Rendón, T. (2008). Normative beliefs as agents of influence: Basic processes and real-world applications. In R. Prislin & W. Crano (Eds.), Attitudes and attitude change (pp. 385-409). New York: Psychology Press.
  • Schultz, P. W., & Kaiser, F. G. (2012). Promoting proenvironmental behavior. In S. Clayton (Ed.), Handbook of environmental and conservation psychology. Oxford University Press.
  • Schultz, P. W. (2002). Knowledge, education, and household recycling: Examining the knowledge-deficit model of behavior change. In T. Dietz & P. Stern (Eds.), New tools for environmental protection (pp. 67-82). Washington DC: National Academy of Sciences.
  • Schultz, P. W. (2002). Inclusion with nature: Understanding the psychology of human-nature interactions. In P. Schmuck, & P. W. Schultz (Eds.), The psychology of sustainable development (pp. 61-78). New York: Kluwer.
  • Schultz, P. W. (2011). The cave of truth. Score, 23(2), 4. Available online at:

Courses Taught:

  • Conservation Psychology
  • Graduate Proseminar in Social and Personality Psychology
  • Graduate Statistics
  • Introductory Statistics
  • Social Psychology

Wesley Schultz
Department of Psychology
California State University, San Marcos
San Marcos, California 92096
United States

  • Phone: (760) 750-8045

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